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Many women are shocked when they hear about the diagnosis of gestational diabetes. More and more pregnant women around the world are hearing this diagnosis. It affects about 7 percent of all pregnant women. Keeping that in mind, we will find out what causes it and how it affects the mother.
What Is Gestational Diabetes?
Gestational diabetes occurs because the body does not produce enough insulin. The need for it increases during pregnancy, because of temporary insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone that unlocks the cells to allow glucose from food to enter the cells through the bloodstream and be converted into energy. As you know, during pregnancy, not only does a woman’s internal sex organs change but also the function of other organs or the activity of receptors.
But many questions occur for women who have recently heard this diagnosis. What are the main differences between type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes? Is there any connection between these types of diabetes? Let’s look closer at each of them.
Diabetes: Gender And Age
Type 1 diabetes mostly affects children and young people, both girls, and boys, young women, and men. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs in older people over 40 years of age, both men, and women. Gestational diabetes occurs only in pregnant women.
Physiology Of 3 Different Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease. It occurs when a human immune system begins to destroy the pancreatic beta cells that produce insulin. In other words, if you have type 1 diabetes, the cells of the pancreas don’t make or make a small amount of insulin. If you have type 2 diabetes, which is the most common variety of diabetes in society, the cell absorption of insulin secreted by the pancreas is impaired, but the pancreas produces insulin, often even more than it needs. During pregnancy, the placenta produced hormones increase the insulin resistance of the body’s cells. The pancreas cannot produce enough insulin inside the human body to overcome this resistance, leaving too much glucose in the blood.
Gestational Diabetes: No Obvious Symptoms
The symptoms of type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes disease appear gradually and are notable. First of all, there is thirst, dry mouth, frequent urination, and weight loss, although appetite remains unchanged. The person also feels a great general weakness, the skin and mucous membranes dry out, and the skin may itch. On the other hand, gestational diabetes often has no obvious symptoms and is only detected through a blood test. Sometimes specific signs may appear, such as thirst, and dry mouth. Other symptoms can easily be confused with normal pregnancy symptoms. For example, frequent urination or fatigue are both common signs of gestational diabetes and pregnancy. All pregnant women at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy are recommended to perform a glucose tolerance test. To find out your pregnancy timing, always use a pregnancy due date calculator. Of course, you will be monitored more closely during pregnancy and after delivery. After giving birth, most women’s blood sugar levels self-regulate, but you need to keep in mind the risk of type 2 diabetes and continue to follow dietary and other recommendations.
Treatment Of 3 Different Diabetes
If you have type 1 diabetes, your body does not produce insulin by itself, so you must take daily insulin injections or oral medications. If you are diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, you may have to drink oral medications, but in many cases, a change in diet and lifestyle is all you need. If you have gestational diabetes, a special diet helps to normalize the blood sugar level – treatment is not always necessary. If dietary changes do not have the desired effect, medication and/or insulin injections may be prescribed.
The Course Of The Disease
Type 1 diabetes is incurable, therefore, in order to avoid serious complications (kidney failure, limb amputations, loss of vision), it is necessary to manage and control it – constantly measure the blood glucose level every day, calculate the consumed carbohydrates, proteins and fats, calculate and inject precise doses of insulin. Type 2 diabetes is incurable too but a healthy diet, active lifestyle, and oral medications can help manage this disease. In most cases, gestational pregnancy is not permanent. However, if a woman has already been treated with insulin during pregnancy, there is a risk that it may develop into type 2 diabetes after childbirth.
The Bottom Line
Gestational diabetes is usually not permanent condition in pregnant women when the glucose level in the blood is higher than normal. Usually, the symptoms are unnotable, so you should always do an oral glucose tolerance test. If you have gestational diabetes, in many cases, a special diet helps to normalize the blood sugar level.